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学生的物理项目可以使量子计算机是可靠的两倍

Abstract image of quantum computer.
(Image credit: Shutterstock)

A student's tweak in quantum computing code could double its ability to catch errors, piquing the interest of Amazon's quantum computing program.

新代码可用于构建符合闪电快速处理时间的承诺的量子计算机以及解决比传统计算机可以处理的更复杂问题的能力。迄今为止,只有两台计算机已达到“量子至上”,或者能够比最快超级计算机更快地完成量子计算。但是,这些计算机都没有使用误差校正码,这是新研究的研究人员对广泛的估计量子计算进行扩展,以便进行广泛的,可靠的使用。

经常计算取决于“位”,它就像可以在“开”或“OFF”位置之间切换的开关。比特的位置对信息进行编码。澳门金莎网上游戏Quantum Computing通过利用非常非常小的尺寸,物理特性获得奇怪的事实增加了一层复杂性:Qubits,位的量子版本,可以同时打开和关闭,是一个称为叠加的状态。Qubits也可以变得纠缠,这意味着即使它们没有身体接触,即一个地区的状态也会影响另一个的状态。这意味着通过在这些奇数量子状态中存储信息,量子计算机可以以更复杂的方式编码信息。澳门金莎网上游戏Qubits可以由多种不同类型的量子粒子组成,并且可以在Qubits网络上编码信息,使得对单个Qubit的损坏不会破坏信息。澳门金莎网上游戏

有关的:12stunning quantum physics experiments

容易出错

There's a catch, however. Qubits are sensitive to environmental disruption, and so they're prone to error. These errors limit the efficiency of quantum computing, which is one reason the field is still in its infancy, study lead author Pablo Bonilla Ataides, an undergraduate student at the University of Sydney,said in a statement。Bonilla led development of the new code as part of his second-year physics project. Google, IBM and other academic and industry groups are working to build quantum computers, but they're experimental thus far.

“我们真的只是摘要如何将量子电脑放在一起,这样如果他们出错的方式 - 他们会出错 - 昆腾电脑仍将结束锻炼,”本杰明·布朗,研究共同作者和量子物理学家在悉尼大学。

Bonilla和Brown以及他们的同事们弄清楚了一个编码调整,以纠正使量子计算机不可靠的错误。该更改涉及一种专门的代码,可以纠正已知更常见的其他类型的错误,布朗告诉实时科学。澳门金沙网上游戏

In a classical, non-quantum computer, bits encode information with a series of 0s and 1s. The only type of error that can occur in this system is a "bit flip" error, in which a 1 turns into a 0 or vice versa. These errors are quite rare in traditional computing.

比特翻转错误发生在量子计算。But because qubits are more complex than traditional bits, they can also have more complex errors. Another common type of error in quantum computing is the dephasing error. In this case, the value of the information switches from positive to negative or vice versa. Sticking with 0s and 1s (though quantum systems aren't actually binary like traditional computers), this would be like a positive 1 flipping to a negative 1. These errors can happen for lots of different physical reasons, Brown said. Qubits might change their angular momentum, or spin. They might become disentangled with one another, or inadvertently entangle with the outside world. Whatever the cause, the result is a loss of information.

"If some of the bits start flipping from the state you're supposed to be in to a different one, it's going to give you the wrong answers in the end, and it's not going to be much use," Brown said.

Fixing quantum mistakes

Bonilla在语句中表示,新代码与先前的纠错码相比,错误抑制了抑制。研究人员以一种令人惊讶的简单方式实现了这一点:它们只是将坐标旋转在系统中的每个其他Qubit上。如果每个Qubit是一个球体,并且在量子位编码的每条信息都是该球体上的一个点,则代码将旋转半个球体澳门金莎网上游戏,使其定义为Up和Up被定义为下降。该结构可以保护信息免除误差,同时也保持从位翻转错误的保护。澳门金莎网上游戏

布朗说,研究人员现在正在与耶鲁大学的科学家们与耶鲁大学和亚马逊的网络服务一起开发Qubits,这是这种类型的代码,棕色说。

“我们希望将其推向真正帮助建立量子计算机,”他说。

The researchers described their new study April 12 in the journal自然通信

最初发表于现场科学。澳门金沙网上游戏