Skip to main content

Never-ending detonations could blast hypersonic craft into space

这种概念图像显示了由倾斜爆炸波动引擎提供动力的超音速飞机。
这种概念图像显示了由倾斜爆炸波动引擎提供动力的超音速飞机。 (图片信用:Daniel A. Rosato,NASA)

永无止境的爆炸可能是高超声速飞行和空间平面的关键,可以将地球从地球中无缝飞行到轨道中。现在,研究人员在实验室中重新创建了可以使其成为可能的实验室。

爆炸是一种特别强大的爆炸,可以比这更快地向外移动声音的速度。The massive explosion thatrocked the port of Beirut in Lebanon last August是一种爆炸​​,而普遍毁灭它引起的销毁表明他们可以生产的巨大能量。

科学家长期以来梦想建造可以利用这种能量的飞机发动机;这样的工艺可以从纽约到一个小时的纽约飞往伦敦。但是爆炸难以控制,并且通常持续低于微秒,所以没有人能够让他们成为现实。

有关的:The top 10 greatest explosions ever

现在,来自佛罗里达大学的一支团队创造了一个实验设置,让他们在固定位置维持爆炸几秒钟,研究人员说是迈向未来超声波推进系统的重大步骤。

“我们在这里试图做的是控制这种爆炸,”佛罗里达大学机械和航空航天工程副教授Kareem Ahmed表示,并在周一发布的研究新论文的领导作者(5月10日))在国家科学院的期刊课程中。

“我们希望冻结空间和利用,energy. Rather than it destroying buildings, as you saw in Lebanon, now I want to use it and produce thrust with it," Ahmed told Live Science. "If we can do that, we can travel super fast."

突破是几十年来研究了一个称为倾斜爆震波动发动机(ODWE)的理论推进系统的研究。该概念通过在超声速度(声音速度超过五倍以上的速度)朝向坡道汇集的概念,从而产生冲击波。这种冲击波迅速加速燃料空气混合物并导致其引爆,以高速从发动机的后部爆炸。结果?很多推力。

When a mixture of air and fuel detonates in this way, the resulting combustion is extra efficient as close to 100% of the fuel is burned. The detonation also generates a lot of pressure, which means the engine can generate much more thrust than other approaches. In theory, this detonation should be able to propel an aircraft at up to 17 times the speed of sound, say the researchers, which could be fast enough for spacecraft to simply fly out of the气氛,而不是需要在火箭上挂起电梯。

The challenge is sustaining the detonation for long enough to power such flight, and previous experimental demonstrations have topped out at just a few milliseconds. The main difficulty, Ahmed said, lies in preventing the detonation from traveling upstream toward the fuel source, where it can cause serious damage, or further downstream, where it will fizzle out.

“总是有问题,”很好,如果你抓住了一个毫秒左右,你只是暂时抓住它吗?“”艾哈迈德说。“你不知道你是否稳定或不稳定。”

To see if they could improve on the previous record, Ahmed and his colleagues built a roughly 2.5-foot-long (0.76 meters) series of chambers that mixes and heats air and氢气气体在加速它到超音速速度并在斜坡上射击它。

经过carefully balancing the proportions of the air-fuel mixture, the speed of the gas flow and the angle of the ramp, they were able to generate a detonation that remained fixed in position for around 3 seconds. That's long enough to confirm that the detonation was stabilized in a fixed position and was not travelling up or downstream, Ahmed said, which is a first, major step toward realizing a real-life ODWE.

Frank Lu, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington who specializes in detonation-based engines, said demonstrating stable detonation is a significant achievement. To develop a practical engine researchers will now have to work out how to operate over a range of speeds and altitudes and deal with combustion instabilities caused by things like uneven mixing of the fuel and air.

"I think the investigators have done an excellent job and look forward to further results," Lu told Live Science.

研究人员仅仅耗尽了它们的实验,主要是因为爆炸的强度快速侵蚀了测试室的玻璃侧面,艾哈详述。他们必须在初步测试中使用玻璃,以便它们可以使爆炸的光学测量,但如果它们是用金属侧替换它们,他们应该能够更长时间地运行爆炸。

And promisingly, Ahmed said the structure of the test apparatus is not that different from the design of a full-scale ODWE. The main challenge for the researchers now is working out how they can alter the three key ingredients of fuel mix, air speed and ramp angle while still maintaining the stability of the detonation.

“现在,我们已经证明它是可行的,它更像是探索如何在更大的经营领域维持它的工程问题,”艾哈迈德说。

最初发表于现场科学。澳门金沙网上游戏