圣经考古学:圣经遗址和文物的研究
圣经考古学领域包括研究圣经时代的文物,如死海古卷,seen here.
信用证:Lerner Vadim/Shutterstock

While the definition of biblical archaeology varies from scholar to scholar,它通常包括一些考古学和圣经研究的结合。

《杂志》圣经考古评论“将圣经考古学定义为”考古学的一个分支,涉及圣经土地的考古学,它告诉我们对圣经和/或圣经事件的历史性的理解。”澳门金莎网上游戏

其他定义包括所研究的特定地理区域。例如,"Biblical archaeology is a subset of the larger field of Syro-Palestinian archaeology — which is conducted throughout the region encompassed by modern Israel,乔丹,黎巴嫩和叙利亚,”埃里克·克莱恩写道,古典学教授,乔治华盛顿大学的人类学和历史,在他的书《圣经考古学:一个非常简短的介绍》(牛津大学出版社,2009)。[圣地:7个惊人的考古发现]

“具体地说,是考古学揭示了这些故事,descriptions,在希伯来圣经和第二个千年早期的新约中的讨论亚伯拉罕和先祖的时代,through the Roman period in the early first millennium [A.D.]," Cline wrote.

Some scholars extend the geographical area that biblical archaeology covers to includeEgypt,Mesopotamia andSudan.Most scholars also note how the discipline combines elements ofarchaeology与圣经研究。这是“考古学和圣经研究这两个学科之间复杂而迷人的探索,”威廉·德弗写道,professor emeritus of Judaic Studies and Near Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona,in a chapter of the book "Historical Biblical Archaeology and the Future: The New Pragmatism" (Routledge,2010)。

Some archaeologists prefer not to use the phrase "biblical archaeology" out of concern that it sounds unscientific.“由于几十年前学者的实践,圣经考古学领域在某些方面遭受了不良的公众形象,”阿恩·迈尔写道,以色列巴伊兰大学考古学教授,in a chapter of the book "Historical Biblical Archaeology and the Future: The New Pragmatism."

Maier explained that earlier scholars in the field often produced biased attempts to connect the Bible to their archaeological finds,并且没有承认圣经文本之外的场景。

Today,大多数圣经考古学家都认为考古发现和圣经之间的联系需要谨慎,and acknowledge that the Bible isnot entirely historically accurate.

There are many important biblical archaeology sites and artifacts,but a few are more well-recognized than others.

这个Dead Sea Scrollsconsist of fragments from 900 manuscripts found in 12 caves near the site of库姆兰在西岸。They contain some of the earliest known copies of the Hebrew Bible and include calendars,赞美诗,community rules and apocryphal (non-canonical) texts.其中一卷,inscribed on copper,有藏宝清单。

Another important biblical find is the Merneptah stele (an inscribed stone slab) — also called the Israel stele.Discovered inLuxor,它包含了最早提到的名字“以色列”。刻于公元前1207年左右,it includes a list of places in the eastern Mediterranean that the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah claims to have conquered.法老声称“以色列被遗弃,他的种子不在了。”

Megiddo was an ancient city inIsrael它被占领了6000年,在圣经中被多次提及。A Greek name for the city is "Armageddon," and,according to the Book of Revelation,在末日期间,善与恶的力量将在梅吉多展开一场大战。

Another important site is the Herodium,a palace built for King Herod (who lived ca.74 to 4 B.C.),罗马任命的统治朱迪亚的国王。Herod was vilified in the New Testament with stories claiming that he tried to kill baby Jesus.几十年来,学者们有struggled to reconcile the biblical accountof the attempted murder with the knowledge that Herod probably died before Jesus was born.[在照片中:有争议的“希律之墓”]

另一个著名的网站是圣殿山(known as Haram esh-Sharif in Arabic) in Jerusalem.它是犹太教最神圣的地方,也是伊斯兰教第三神圣的地方。它的宗教重要性,加上以色列和巴勒斯坦不断发生的冲突,意味着那里几乎没有考古工作。

There are许多谜团圣经考古学家仍在努力解决这个问题。For instance,did an exodus of Jews from Egypt actually occur and if so,when?And could the story of the Book of Exodus be related to the expulsion of a people called the "Hyksos" from Egypt that occurred more than 3,500 years ago?

Other mysteries include determining whether or not theKing David圣经中提到的确实存在。A 2,800-year-old stele found at Tel Dan in northern Israel mentions a "House of David," suggesting that the biblical ruler may have existed.又有2800年的铭文,名叫米沙碑(以摩押王米沙的名字命名,the person who erected it) has writing on it that some scholars believe refers to King David but this is uncertain.Also some scholars,such as Hebrew University of Jerusalem archaeology professor Yosef Garfinkel,believe that theKhirbet Qeiyafa有3000年历史的遗址,southwest of Jerusalem,may have been used by King David however,这也是不确定的。

It's also unclear how powerful Israel truly was in its early days.The Hebrew Bible suggests that Israel controlled a large amount of territory with Jerusalem as an important political and spiritual center.有3200年历史的梅尔内塔赫石碑提到了以色列的存在,但几乎没有提供关于以色列控制了多少领土的信息。澳门金莎网上游戏

一些圣经网站的位置也模糊不清。For instance,考古学家不确定圣经中所多玛城在哪里。根据希伯来圣经,这座城市被上帝摧毁了,因为它变得太罪恶了。一些考古学家建议索多玛可能位于泰尔哈曼的考古遗址,in Jordan,because of the site's geographic location and archaeological evidence that it was destroyed suddenly.最近的研究表明,泰尔哈曼和附近地区可能destroyed by a cosmic airburst这发生在大约3700年前的这个地区。

Biblical archaeologists are also faced with the puzzle of describingwhat Jesus was really like.现存最早的福音书——描述耶稣生活和教义的四本圣经——可追溯到公元二世纪。约在耶稣死后100年。这意味着我们无法确定福音书中有多少是真的,有多少是虚构的。

最近的挖掘at Nazareth,the city where Jesus is thought to have lived,indicate that people in Nazareth rejected Roman culture.This falls in line with biblical accounts of Nazareth being a community that followed Jewish religion and customs.拿撒勒人的挖掘也揭露了一座被尊为耶稣居住之地的房子。但直到耶稣大概出生几个世纪之后。

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